If you’re a database administrator, the recently released MySQL 8.0 is probably the most exciting event of the year. The new version offers some significant benefits to the previous version (5.7).
At CanSpace, we will support MySQL 8.0 as soon as it is officially supported by cPanel, which should be within a few months.
Here are some of the features you can look forward to in MySQL 8.0:
MySQL now incorporates a transactional data dictionary that stores information about database objects. In previous MySQL releases, dictionary data was stored in metadata files and nontransactional tables. For more information, see Chapter 14, MySQL Data Dictionary.
MySQL now supports creation and management of resource groups, and permits assigning threads running within the server to particular groups so that threads execute according to the resources available to the group.
Group attributes enable control over its resources, to enable or restrict resource consumption by threads in the group. DBAs can modify these attributes as appropriate for different workloads. Currently, CPU time is a manageable resource, represented by the concept of “virtual CPU” as a term that includes CPU cores, hyperthreads, hardware threads, and so forth. The server determines at startup how many virtual CPUs are available, and database administrators with appropriate privileges can associate these CPUs with resource groups and assign threads to groups. For more information, see Section 8.12.5, “Resource Groups”.
Table encryption management
Table encryption can now be managed globally by defining and enforcing encryption defaults. The default_table_encryption variable defines an encryption default for newly created schemas and general tablespace. The encryption default for a schema can also be defined using the DEFAULT ENCRYPTION clause when creating a schema. By default, a table inherits the encryption of the schema or general tablespace it is created in. Encryption defaults are enforced by enabling the table_encryption_privilege_check variable. The privilege check occurs when creating or altering a schema or general tablespace with an encryption setting that differs from the default_table_encryption setting, or when creating or altering a table with an encryption setting that differs from the default schema encryption. The TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege permits overriding default encryption settings when table_encryption_privilege_check is enabled. For more information, see Defining an Encryption Default for Schemas and General Tablespaces.
Security and account management
These enhancements were added to improve security and enable greater DBA flexibility in account management:
- The grant tables in the mysql system database are now InnoDB (transactional) tables. Previously, these were MyISAM (nontransactional) tables. The change of grant table storage engine underlies an accompanying change to the behavior of account-management statements. Previously, an account-management statement (such as CREATE USER or DROP USER) that named multiple users could succeed for some users and fail for others. Now, each statement is transactional and either succeeds for all named users or rolls back and has no effect if any error occurs. The statement is written to the binary log if it succeeds, but not if it fails; in that case, rollback occurs and no changes are made. For more information, see Section 13.1.1, “Atomic Data Definition Statement Support”.
- A new caching_sha2_password authentication plugin is available. Like the sha256_password plugin, caching_sha2_password implements SHA-256 password hashing, but uses caching to address latency issues at connect time. It also supports more connection protocols and does not require linking against OpenSSL for RSA key pair-based password-exchange capabilities. See Section 220.127.116.11, “Caching SHA-2 Pluggable Authentication”.
The caching_sha2_password and sha256_password authentication plugins provide more secure password encryption than the mysql_native_password plugin, and caching_sha2_password provides better performance than sha256_password. Due to these superior security and performance characteristics of caching_sha2_password, it is now the preferred authentication plugin, and is also the default authentication plugin rather than mysql_native_password. For information about the implications of this change of default plugin for server operation and compatibility of the server with clients and connectors, see caching_sha2_password as the Preferred Authentication Plugin.
- MySQL now supports roles, which are named collections of privileges. Roles can be created and dropped. Roles can have privileges granted to and revoked from them. Roles can be granted to and revoked from user accounts. The active applicable roles for an account can be selected from among those granted to the account, and can be changed during sessions for that account. For more information, see Section 6.2.10, “Using Roles”.
- MySQL now incorporates the concept of user account categories, with system and regular users distinguished according to whether they have the SYSTEM_USER privilege. See Section 6.2.11, “Account Categories”.
- Previously, it was not possible to grant privileges that apply globally except for certain schemas. This is now possible if the partial_revokes system variable is enabled. See Section 6.2.12, “Privilege Restriction Using Partial Revokes”.
- The GRANT statement has an AS user [WITH ROLE] clause that specifies additional information about the privilege context to use for statement execution. This syntax is visible at the SQL level, although its primary purpose is to enable uniform replication across all nodes of grantor privilege restrictions imposed by partial revokes, by causing those restrictions to appear in the binary log. See Section 18.104.22.168, “GRANT Syntax”.
- MySQL now maintains information about password history, enabling restrictions on reuse of previous passwords. DBAs can require that new passwords not be selected from previous passwords for some number of password changes or period of time. It is possible to establish password-reuse policy globally as well as on a per-account basis.
It is now possible to require that attempts to change account passwords be verified by specifying the current password to be replaced. This enables DBAs to prevent users from changing password without proving that they know the current password. It is possible to establish password-verification policy globally as well as on a per-account basis.
Accounts are now permitted to have dual passwords, which enables phased password changes to be performed seamlessly in complex multiple-server systems, without downtime.
These new capabilities provide DBAs more complete control over password management. For more information, see Section 6.2.15, “Password Management”.
- MySQL now supports FIPS mode, if compiled using OpenSSL, and an OpenSSL library and FIPS Object Module are available at runtime. FIPS mode imposes conditions on cryptographic operations such as restrictions on acceptable encryption algorithms or requirements for longer key lengths. See Section 6.5, “FIPS Support”.
- The SSL context the server uses for new connections now is reconfigurable at runtime. This capability may be useful, for example, to avoid restarting a MySQL server that has been running so long that its SSL certificate has expired. See Server-Side Runtime Configuration for Encrypted Connections.
- OpenSSL 1.1.1 supports the TLS v1.3 protocol for encrypted connections, and MySQL 8.0.16 and higher supports TLS v1.3 as well, if both the server and client are compiled using OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher. See Section 6.3.2, “Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers”.
- MySQL now sets the access control granted to clients on the named pipe to the minimum necessary for successful communication on Windows. Newer MySQL client software can open named pipe connections without any additional configuration. If older client software cannot be upgraded immediately, the new named_pipe_full_access_group system variable can be used to give a Windows group the necessary permissions to open a named pipe connection. Membership in the full-access group should be restricted and temporary.
Additional new features include:
- SQL Window functions, Common Table Expressions, NOWAIT and SKIP LOCKED, Descending Indexes, Grouping, Regular Expressions, Character Sets, Cost Model, and Histograms.
- JSON Extended syntax, new functions, improved sorting, and partial updates. With JSON table functions you can use the SQL machinery for JSON data.
- GIS Geography support. Spatial Reference Systems (SRS), as well as SRS aware spatial datatypes, spatial indexes, and spatial functions.
- Reliability DDL statements have become atomic and crash safe, meta-data is stored in a single, transactional data dictionary. Powered by InnoDB!
- Observability Significant enhancements to Performance Schema, Information Schema, Configuration Variables, and Error Logging.
- Manageability Remote management, Undo tablespace management, and new instant DDL.
- Security OpenSSL improvements, new default authentication, SQL Roles, breaking up the super privilege, password strength, and more.
- Performance InnoDB is significantly better at Read/Write workloads, IO bound workloads, and high contention “hot spot” workloads. Added Resource Group feature to give users an option optimize for specific workloads on specific hardware by mapping user threads to CPUs.
Clearly, there are a ton of new features in MySQL 8.0 that users of all skill levels will appreciate. We will send around an update on social media as soon as cPanel officially supports MySQL and you can use it on your CanSpace servers!